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Dog Thoracic Limb Skeleton
Scapula
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Radial Carpal
Accessory Carpal
Ulnar Carpal
Distal Carpal
Meta Carpal
Proximal Phalanx
Middle Phalanx
Distal Phalanx
 
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Scapula
Medial View of Scapula
Medial view of Scapula
The scapula is a flat triangular bone at the top of the shoulder; more commonly known as the shoulder blade.
It consists of 2 surfaces (medial and lateral), 3 borders (cranial, caudal and dorsal) and 3 angles (craniodorsal, caudodorsal and ventral angle).

 

Clinical Aspect
The pig and horse do not have an acromion. The acromion protects the suprascapular nerve that lies underneath it, therefore, this nerve is susceptible to physical damage in pigs and horses. Sweeney is a condition in horses in which this nerve is damaged.

 

Labels & Legends
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Acromion: An enlarged distal end of the spine. The deltoid muscle attaches here.
Caudal Border: Relatively straight caudal edge of this bone; closest to the tail.
Cranial Border: Curved cranial edge of this bone; closest to the head.
Dorsal Border: Dorsal edge of this bone with bearing a small scapular cartilage in a live animal; closest to the dorsum (back).
Glenoid Cavity: An articular cavity of the scapula. Articulates with the head of the humerus to form a shoulder joint. This cavity is covered by hyaline (articular) cartilage in a live animal.
Infraglenoid Tubercle: A caudally pointing process found close to the caudal aspect of the glenoid cavity. Articulates with the joint capsule of the shoulder joint.
Infraspinous Fossa: A depressed area caudal to the spine. It serves as a point of attachment for infraspinatus muscle.
Serrated Surface: A rough dorsal portion of medial surface of this bone. The serratus ventralis muscle attaches here.
Spine: A bony ridge that divides the lateral surface of this bone into the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae.
Subscapular Fossa: A smooth portion of the medial surface of this bone. The subscapularis muscle attaches here.
Supraglenoid Tubercle: A cranially pointing process found close to the cranial aspect of the glenoid cavity. This process serves as a point of attachment for the biceps brachii muscle.
Supraspinous Fossa: A depressed area cranial to the spine. It serves as a point of attachment for supraspinatus muscle.

 

Radiography Positioning

The following illustration shows positioning forelimbs for radiographical imaging.

Download Large Version

 

Quizzes
Click the following links to assess your knowledge and competence.

 

Humerus
Dog Left Humerus
Dog Humerus Views: Cranial, Lateral, Caudal, Medial
Some Species Variations in Humerus
  • The cat has a small coronoid fossa medial to the radial fossa that accommodates the coronoid process of the ulna during elbow joint flexion.
  • The cat has a supracondylar foramen near the medial condyle allowing the passage of the median nerve and brachial blood vessels.
  • There is an intermediate tubercle between the greater and lesser tubercles in the horse‚Äôs intertubercular groove.
  • The greater tubercle is subdivided into two parts (cranial and caudal) in ungulates. Ungulates use tips of their digits to bare weight.

 

Labels & Legends
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Deltoid Tuberosity: The tuberosity on the lateral proximal half of the humerus for the attachment of the deltoideus muscle.
Greater Tubercle: Large prominence located craniolateral to the head. This prominence forms a palpable feature known as the point of the shoulder on a live animal. Several shoulder muscles attach here.
Head: The rounded proximal part that articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula forming the shoulder joint.
Humeral Condyle: The distal extremity of the humerus. Features of the condyle include; capitulum, trochlea, radial and olecranon fossae, and the lateral and medial epicondyles.
Intertubercular Groove: The groove between the greater and lesser tubercle allowing the passage of the tendon of origin of the biceps brachii muscle. In life covered by cartilage to facilitate the smooth movement of the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle.
Lateral Epicondyle: Located on the lateral side of the condyle for the attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the extensors of the carpus and digits. Functionally called extensor epicondyle.
Lesser Tubercle: Smaller prominence located on the medial aspect of the head.
Line of Triceps Muscle: A raised area between linking the teres minor and deltoid tuberosities. The triceps muscle attaches here.
Medial Epicondyle: Located medial side of the condyle for the attachment of medial collateral ligament and flexors of the carpus and digits. Functionally called flexor epicondyle.
Neck: Constricted portion just below the head.
Olecranon Fossa: Caudal depression that houses the olecranon during the extension of the elbow joint.
Radial Fossa: Cranial depression that accommodates the head of the radius during the flexion of the elbow joint.
Supratrochlear Foramen: The hole between the radial and olecranon fossae found in the dog (occasionally in the pig). It has no known function.
Teres Minor Tuberosity: A proximal lateral tuberosity used for teres minor muscle attachment.

 

Quizzes
Click the following links to assess your knowledge and competence.
Radius
Dog Left Radius
Dog Radius views: Cranial, Lateral, Caudal, Medial
Species Variations
  • The radius and ulna are fused in equidae and ruminants making them inseparable.
  • The cat has a supracondylar foramen near the medial condyle allowing the passage of the median nerve and brachial blood vessels.
  • In the horse the styloid process of the ulna completely fuses with the radius. Therefore it is regarded as missing in the horse.

 

Clinical Aspects of Radius & Ulna
  • Anconeal and medial coronoid processes may get detached from the ulna in some joint diseases affecting the elbow joint. These can be seen on radiographs of the affected joints.

 

Labels & Legends
  (Click on each label to zoom in)
Articular Surface: This is the surface on the head of the radius adapted to articulate with the humeral condyles.
Articular Surface Head: Proximal part of the radius which articulates with the humerus (capitulum) and ulna.
Medial Styloid Process: Pointed end of the distal part of the radius.
Ulnar Notch: This is a small articular facet that accommodates the distal portion of the ulna.

 

Quizzes
Click the following links to assess your knowledge and competence.
Ulna
Dog Left Ulna
Dog Ulna Views: Cranial, Lateral, Caudal, Medial
Species Variations
  • The radius and ulna are fused in equidae and ruminants making them inseparable.
  • The cat has a supracondylar foramen near the medial condyle allowing the passage of the median nerve and brachial blood vessels.
  • In the horse the styloid process of the ulna completely fuses with the radius. Therefore it is regarded as missing in the horse.

 

Clinical Aspects of Radius & Ulna
  • Anconeal and medial coronoid processes may get detached from the ulna in some joint diseases affecting the elbow joint. These can be seen on radiographs of the affected joints.

 

Labels & Legends
  (Click on each label to zoom in)
Anconeal Process: A large process bordering the proximal margin of the trochlear notch of the ulna. Anconeus muscle attaches here.
Lateral Coronoid Process: Small process on lateral side of the radial notch.
Medial Coronoid Process: Small process on medial side of the radial notch. Medial larger than lateral process.
Olecranon: Caudally pointing tuberosity on the proximal part of the ulna. Serves as an insertion site for major extensors of the elbow joint (e.g Triceps brachii muscle).
Radial Notch: An articular surface for the head of the radius.
Styloid Process: Pointed end of the distal part of the ulna.
Trochlear Notch: A curved articular depression for the humeral trochlea. Bordered my anconeal process proximally and coronoid processes distally.

 

Quizzes
Click the following links to assess your knowledge and competence.
Radial Carpal
The description for each section goes here.
Accessory carpal
The description for each section goes here.
Ulnar Carpal
The description for each section goes here.
Distal carpal
The description for each section goes here.
Meta carpal
The description for each section goes here.

 

Labels & Legends
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Articular Surface:

 

Proximal Phalanx
The description for each section goes here.
Middle Phalanx
The description for each section goes here.
Distal Phalanx
The description for each section goes here.

 

Labels & Legends
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Ungual Crest:
Ungual Process:

 

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Dog Left Thoracic Limb
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