Veterinary Technician: Dog Anatomy
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hyoid
Hyoid Apparatus
vertebrae
Axial Skeleton
rib
Thoracic Cage
forelimb
Thoracic Limb
hindlimb
Pelvic Limb
Skull & Mandible
head
Head
skull
Skull
mandible
Mandible
Click on a thumbnail from above or a bone on the 3D window in order to select.

Skull

Mandible

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Hyoid
hyoid
Hyoid
basihyoid
Basihyoid
ceratohyoid
Ceratohyoid
epihyoid
Epihyoid
stylohyoid
Stylohyoid
thyrohyoid
Thyrohyoid
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Basihyoid

Ceratohyoid

Epihyoid

Stylohyoid

Thyrohyoid

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Vertebrae
vertebrae
Vertebrae
cervical
Cervical
atlas C1
Atlas (C1)
axis C2
Axis (C2)
C6
Cervical 6
thoracic
Thoracic
lumbar
Lumbar
sacrum
Sacrum
caudal
Caudal
Click on a thumbnail from above or a bone on the 3D window in order to select.

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar

Sacrum

Caudal

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Rib & Sternebrae
rib
Thoracic Cage
left rib
Left Rib
right rib
Right Rib
sternebrae
Sternebrae
Click on a thumbnail from above or a bone on the 3D window in order to select.

Left Rib

Right Rib

Sternebrae

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Thoracic Limb
forelimb
Forelimb
scapula
Scapula
humerus
Humerus
radius
Radius
ulna
Ulna
radial carpal
Radial Carpal
accessory carpal
Accessory Carpal
ulnar carpal
Ulnar Carpal
distal carpal
Distal Carpal
metacarpal
Metacarpal
proximal phalanx
Proximal Phalanx
middle phalanx
Middle Phalanx
distal phalanx
Distal Phalanx
Click on a thumbnail from above or a bone on the 3D window in order to select.
Scapula
medial view of scapula
Medial View of Scapula
Clincal Aspect

The scapula is a flat triangular bone at the top of the shoulder; more commonly known as the shoulder blade. It consists of 2 surfaces (medial and lateral), 3 borders (cranial, caudal and dorsal) and 3 angles (craniodorsal, caudodorsal and ventral angle).

The pig and horse do not have an acromion. The acromion protects the suprascapular nerve that lies underneath it, therefore, this nerve is susceptible to physical damage in pigs and horses. Sweeney is a condition in horses in which this nerve is damaged.


Labels & Legends
  1. Acromion: An enlarged distal end of the spine. The deltoid muscle attaches here.
  2. Caudal Border: Relatively straight caudal edge of this bone; closest to the tail.
  3. Cranial Border: Curved cranial edge of this bone; closest to the head.
  4. Dorsal Border: Dorsal edge of this bone with bearing a small scapular cartilage in a live animal; closest to the dorsum (back).
  5. Glenoid Cavity: An articular cavity of the scapula. Articulates with the head of the humerus to form a shoulder joint. This cavity is covered by hyaline (articular) cartilage in a live animal.
  6. Infraglenoid Tubercle: A caudally pointing process found close to the caudal aspect of the glenoid cavity. Articulates with the joint capsule of the shoulder joint.
  7. Infraspinous Fossa: A depressed area caudal to the spine. It serves as a point of attachment for infraspinatus muscle.
  8. Serrated Surface: A rough dorsal portion of medial surface of this bone. The serratus ventralis muscle attaches here.
  9. Spine: A bony ridge that divides the lateral surface of this bone into the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae.
  10. Subscapular Fossa: A smooth portion of the medial surface of this bone. The subscapularis muscle attaches here.
  11. Supraglenoid Tubercle: A cranially pointing process found close to the cranial aspect of the glenoid cavity. This process serves as a point of attachment for the biceps brachii muscle.
  12. Supraspinous Fossa: A depressed area cranial to the spine. It serves as a point of attachment for supraspinatus muscle.
Radiography Positioning

The following illustration shows positioning forelimbs for radiographical imaging.

Right lateral recumbency

Humerus
dog left humerus cranial view dog left humerus lateral view dog left humerus caudal view dog left humerus medial view
Views of Left Humerus: Cranial, Lateral, Caudal, Medial

Some Species Variations
Labels & Legends
  1. Deltoid Tuberosity: The tuberosity on the lateral proximal half of the humerus for the attachment of the deltoideus muscle.
  2. Greater Tubercle: Large prominence located craniolateral to the head. This prominence forms a palpable feature known as the point of the shoulder on a live animal. Several shoulder muscles attach here.
  3. Head: The rounded proximal part that articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula forming the shoulder joint.
  4. Humeral Condyle: The distal extremity of the humerus. Features of the condyle include; capitulum, trochlea, radial and olecranon fossae, and the lateral and medial epicondyles.
  5. Intertubercular Groove: The groove between the greater and lesser tubercle allowing the passage of the tendon of origin of the biceps brachii muscle. In life covered by cartilage to facilitate the smooth movement of the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle.
  6. Lateral Epicondyle: Located on the lateral side of the condyle for the attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the extensors of the carpus and digits. Functionally called extensor epicondyle.
  7. Lesser Tubercle: Smaller prominence located on the medial aspect of the head.
  8. Line of Triceps Muscle: A raised area between linking the teres minor and deltoid tuberosities. The triceps muscle attaches here.
  9. Medial Epicondyle: Located medial side of the condyle for the attachment of medial collateral ligament and flexors of the carpus and digits. Functionally called flexor epicondyle.
  10. Neck: Constricted portion just below the head.
  11. Olecranon Fossa: Caudal depression that houses the olecranon during the extension of the elbow joint.
  12. Radial Fossa: Cranial depression that accommodates the head of the radius during the flexion of the elbow joint.
  13. Supratrochlear Foramen: The hole between the radial and olecranon fossae found in the dog (occasionally in the pig). It has no known function.
  14. Teres Minor Tuberosity: A proximal lateral tuberosity used for teres minor muscle attachment.

Radius
dog left radius cranial view dog left radius lateral view dog left radius caudal view dog left radius medial view
Views of Left Radius: Cranial, Lateral, Caudal, Medial

Species Variations
Clinical Aspects of Radius & Ulna
Labels & Legends
  1. Articular Surface: This is the surface on the head of the radius adapted to articulate with the humeral condyles.
  2. Articular Surface Head: Proximal part of the radius which articulates with the humerus (capitulum) and ulna.
  3. Medial Styloid Process: Pointed end of the distal part of the radius.
  4. Ulnar Notch: This is a small articular facet that accommodates the distal portion of the ulna.

Ulna
dog left ulna cranial view dog left ulna cranial view dog left ulna cranial view dog left ulna cranial view
Views of Left Ulna: Cranial, Lateral, Caudal, Medial

Species Variations
Clinical Aspects of Radius & Ulna
Labels & Legends
  1. Anconeal Process: A large process bordering the proximal margin of the trochlear notch of the ulna. Anconeus muscle attaches here.
  2. Lateral Coronoid Process: Small process on lateral side of the radial notch.
  3. Medial Coronoid Process: Small process on medial side of the radial notch. Medial larger than lateral process.
  4. Olecranon: Caudally pointing tuberosity on the proximal part of the ulna. Serves as an insertion site for major extensors of the elbow joint (e.g Triceps brachii muscle).
  5. Radial Notch: An articular surface for the head of the radius.
  6. Styloid Process: Pointed end of the distal part of the ulna.
  7. Trochlear Notch: A curved articular depression for the humeral trochlea. Bordered my anconeal process proximally and coronoid processes distally.

Radial Carpal

Accessory Carpal

Ulnar Carpal

Distal Carpal I II III IV

Metacarpal I II III IV V
Labels & Legends
  1. Articular Surface:

Proximal Phalanx II III IV V

Middle Phalanx II III IV V

Distal Phalanx I II III IV V
Labels & Legends
  1. Ungual Crest:
  2. Ungual Process:
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Pelvic Limb
hindlimb
Hindlimb
oscoxae
Os Coxae
femur
Femur
patella
Patella
tibia
Tibia
fibula
Fibula
talus
Talus
calcaneus
Calcaneus
central tarsal
Central Tarsal
tarsal
Tarsal
metatarsal
Metatarsal
proximal phalanx
Proximal Phalanx
middle phalanx
Middle Phalanx
distal phalanx
Distal Phalanx
Click on a thumbnail from above or a bone on the 3D window in order to select.

The hind limbs have a similar basic pattern to the forelimb. They consist of: femur, tibia and fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, digits or phalanges. The top of the femur moves against (articulates with) the pelvis at the hip joint.

Os Coxae
Dog Os Coxae
Dog Os Coxae

Os coxae are made up of four bones; ilium, ischium, pubic and acetabular bones.


Labels & Legends
  1. Acetabular Notch: Notch found on the ventral aspect of the acetabulum.
  2. Acetabulum: A large articulation area with the head of the femur, and divided into Acetabular fossa, Lunatesurface.
    • Acetabular Fossa: A non-articular depression portion of the acetabulum used for the attachment of the ligament of the head of the femur.
    • Lunate Surface: Articular half-moon shaped articular surface.
  3. Articular Surface: Articular surface for sacrum.
  4. Greater Ischiatic Notch: A notch found on the dorsal border of the body of the ilium. Schiatic nerve and cranial gluteal vessels pass over this notch.
  5. Iliopubic Eminence: Demarcates the ilium from the pubic bone and serves as attatchment site for the prepubic tendon and inguinal ligament.
  6. Ilium: Craniodorsal bone of the os coxae divided into wing and shaft.
    • Wing: Expanded cranial portion of the ilium.
    • Shaft (Body): Narrow handle-like part of ilium. Rectus femoris muscle attaches here.
  7. Ischiatic Arch: Caudal margin of the floor of the pelvis formed by the left and right ischiatic bones.
  8. Ischiatic Spine: Found between the greater and lesser schiatic notches and serves for the attachment of the gemellus muscle.
  9. Ischiatic Tuberosity: Laterally projecting process of the ischium used for the attachment of anatomical structures such as sacrotuberous ligament, biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimemranosus muscles.
  10. Ischium:
  11. Lesser Ischiatic Notch: A notch found on the dorsal border of the ischium. Tendon of internal obturator muscle passes over it.
  12. Obturator Foramen: Largest foramen in the body. Allows the passage of nerves and vessels.
  13. Pelvic Symphysis: A fibrous joint midline on which the two halves of the os coxae are fused ventrally pointing tuber used for the attachment of the prepubic tendon.
  14. Pubic Bone Pectin: Cranially pointing tuber used for the attachment of the prepubic tendon.
  15. Pubis:
  16. Tuber Coxae: Ventral border of the wing (expanded cranial portion of ilium).
  17. Tuber Sacrale: Dorsal border of the wing.

Femur
Labels & Legends
  1. Head: A proximal rounded articular extremity of the femur whose shape is adapted to fit into the acetabulum of the os coxae.
  2. Fovea: A non articular depression found on the head used for the attachment of the ligament of the head of the femur.
  3. Greater Trochanter: It is for the attachment of the middle and deep gluteal muscles as well as the quadriceps femoris muscles.
  4. Intercondylar Fossa: A fossa between the condyles used for the attachments of the cruciate ligaments.
  5. Lateral Condyle: Articular surfaces with the tibia.
  6. Lateral Epicondyle: Muscular and ligamentous attachment site for collateral ligaments, semimembranosus muscle and long digital extensor muscle.
  7. Lateral Supracondylar Tuberosity: Lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle and the superficial digital flexor muscle attaches here.
  8. Lesser Trochanter: A small process for the attachment of iliopsoas muscle.
  9. Medial Condyle: Articular surfaces with the tibia.
  10. Medial Epicondyle: Muscular and ligamentous attachment site for collateral ligaments, semimembranosus muscle and long digital extensor muscle.
  11. Neck: A constricted portion of the proximal end of the femur distal to the head.
  12. Third Trochanter: Superficial gluteal muscle attaches here.
  13. Trochanteric Fossa: A depression used for the attachment of the internal and external obturator muscles and the gemellus.
  14. Trochlea: An articular surface housing the patella.

Patella

Tibia
Labels & Legends
  1. Intercondylar Eminence: Process between the two condyles.
  2. Lateral Condyle: Articular surfaces that articulate with the condyles of the femur.
  3. Medial Condyle: Articular surfaces that articulate with the condyles of the femur.
  4. Medial Malleolus: Large process on the distal end of the tibia that serves as a point of attachment for the medial collateral ligament. Palpable in live animals.
  5. Popliteal Notch: Notch between the condyles and allows for the passage of the popliteal muscle tendon.
  6. Tibial Crest: Cranial projection that serves as a point of attachment for the muscles such as biceps femoris, gracillis, Sartorius and semitendinosus.
  7. Tibial Tuberosity: Large cranial prominence of the tibia that serves as a point of attachment for the patellar ligament.

Fibula
Labels & Legends
  1. Head:
  2. Lateral Malleolus:

Talus
Labels & Legends
  1. Trochlea: Articular Surface of Talus.

Calcaneus
Labels & Legends
  1. Sustentaculum: Supports the passage of some flexor tendons.
  2. Tuber: Large tuberosity used for the insertion of the calcaneus tendon. This tendon is made up of tarsal tendons of gracilis, gastrocnemius, and superficial digital flexor muscles.

Central Tarsal

Tarsal I II III IV

Metatarsal I II III IV V
Labels & Legends
  1. Articular Surface:

Proximal Phalanx II III IV V

Middle Phalanx II III IV V

Distal Phalanx II III IV V
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About

Dog Anatomy project is developed by Veterinary Technician Program and Centre for Teaching and Learning in Sheridan College, to provide web-based, interactive digital learning tools for veterinary science students and practitioners.

This project creates scientifically accurate 3D digital models of dog skeletons using a high-definition 3D scanner, and visualizes and simulates 3D digital models to better understand the topographical and functional aspects of dog anatomy.

License

The digital content and representation in this application are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).

Under this license, this content is exclusively for non-commercial educational purpose only. It is not permitted users to modify any content in this application, and to publish any content without express written permission of the creators of this work.

Usage

Use the computer keyboard/mouse interface and touch gestures to manipulate the camera.

camera navigation help
Mouse Buttons / Wheel
mouse left button: Rotate camera
mouse middle wheel: Zoom camera in/out
mouse right button: Move camera
Touches & Keyboards
1-Finger Drag: Rotate camera
2-Finger Drag: Move camera
Pinch: Zoom camera

Arrows: Move camera
+/-: Zoom camera in/out
R: Reset camera

Contacts

Dr. Danny Liswaniso (PhD, MVM, DVM)
Professor, Veterinary Technician, FAHCS, Sheridan College

Song Ho Ahn
Visualization Researcher, CTL, Sheridan College

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