Femur Documentation – Anatomy Software                                                                                                                  

·         The femur is the longest, heaviest and by most measures the strongest bone in the human body.

·         Its length is approximately 25% of the person’s height, a ratio that is useful in anthropology. 

·         Divided into a proximal end, shaft and distal end.

·         The two femurs converge medially towards the knees, where they articulate with the proximal ends of the tibia. The angle of convergence of the femurs is a major factor in determining the femoral-tibia angle. In females the femurs converge more than in males because the pelvic bone is wider in females.


  1. Upper End


    1. Head

·         The head which is globular and forms slightly more than a hemisphere.

·         Directed superior, medial, and anterior.

·         Its surface is smooth, covered with hyaline cartilage except over the fovea.


    1. Fovea

·         An ovoid depression which is situated a little below and behind the center of the head of femur.

·         Gives attachment to the ligamentum teres.


    1. Neck

·         Connecting the shaft and head of the femur.

·         Projects superior and medial from the shaft to the head.

·         In addition to projecting superior and medial from the shaft of the femur, the neck also projects somewhat anterior.

·         The amount of forward projection is extremely variable, but on an average is from 12° to 14°.


    1. Greater Trochanter

·         Large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence, situated at the junction of the neck with the upper part of the shaft.

·         It is directed lateral and is located slightly lower than the head.

·         It has two surfaces and four borders.




    1. Lesser Trochanter

·         Is a conical eminence.

·         It projects from the lower and posterior part of the base of the neck.

·         The inferior border is continuous with the medial lip of the linea aspera.

·         The summit of the trochanter is rough, and gives insertion to the tendon of the psoas major.


    1. Pectineal Line

·         Extends inferior from the base of the lesser trochanter and gives attachment to the pectineus.


    1. Intertrochanteric Line

·         Running obliquely down and medial from the anterior superior side of the greater trochanter.

·         It winds around the medial side of the body of the shaft, below the lesser trochanter.

·         Ends about 5 cm. below this eminence in the linea aspera.

·         It’s upper and lower has attachment to the iliofemoral ligament of the hip-joint.

·         It’s lower half is less prominent, and gives attachment to the pubofemoral ligament and origin to the upper part of the vastus medialis.


    1. Intertrochanteric Crest

·         Running obliquely down and medial from the summit of the greater trochanter on the posterior surface.

·         Its upper half forms the posterior border of the greater trochanter.

·         Its lower half runs downward and medial to the lesser trochanter.


    1. Quadrate Tubercle

·         A slight thickening at about the middle of the intertrochanteric crest.

·         Marking the attachment of the quadratus femoris.


  1. Shaft
    1. Upper Third

                                                              i.      Spiral line

·         Extends inferior from the intertrochanteric line from anterior to posterior.

·         Transitions from the intertrochanteric line into the medial lip of the linea aspera.


                                                            ii.      Gluteal tuberosity

·         Rough along the posterior lateral aspect of the upper shaft.

·         Runs almost vertically upward to the base of the greater trochanter.

·         Transitions into the lateral lip of the linea aspera.

·         Gives attachment to the deep fibres of the gluteus maximus.



    1. Middle Third

                                                              i.      Linea aspera

·         It is slightly arched.

·         A prominent longitudinal ridge or crest, on the middle third of the bone on the posterior surface.

·         Contains a medial and lateral lip, and a narrow rough, intermediate line.


a.      Medial lip

·         It ends below at the summit of the medial condyle, in a small tubercle (adductor tubercle).


b.      Lateral lip

·         The lateral is the more prominent, and descends to the summit of the lateral condyle.


    1. Lower Third

                                                              i.      Medial supracondylar line



                                                            ii.      Lateral supracondylar line




                                                          iii.      Popliteal surface

·         Triangular area below and between the linea aspera (in particular the medial and lateral supracondylar lines).



  1. Lower End
    1. Lateral Condyle



    1. Lateral Epicondyle

·         Smaller and less prominent than the medial.

·         Gives attachment to the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) of the knee-joint.



    1. Medial Condyle



    1. Medial Epicondyle

·         A large convex eminence to which the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee-joint is attached.

·         At its upper part is the adductor tubercle and behind it is a rough impression which gives origin to the medial head of the gastrocnemius.


    1. Adductor Tubercle

·         A small tubercle located at the summit of the medial condyle.

·         Located superior and posterior to the medial epicondyle.

·         Insertion for the tendon of the adductor magnus.


    1. Patellar Surface

·         Lower end of the femur that occupies the anterior and inferior surfaces of the condyles.

·         Articulates with the posterior aspect of the patella.


    1. Tibial Surface

·         Convex articulating surfaces which correspond to the condyles of the tibia and menisci.