Femur Documentation – Anatomy Software
· The femur is the longest, heaviest and by most measures the strongest bone in the human body.
· Its length is approximately 25% of the person’s height, a ratio that is useful in anthropology.
· Divided into a proximal end, shaft and distal end.
· The two femurs converge medially towards the knees, where they articulate with the proximal ends of the tibia. The angle of convergence of the femurs is a major factor in determining the femoral-tibia angle. In females the femurs converge more than in males because the pelvic bone is wider in females.
· The head which is globular and forms slightly more than a hemisphere.
· Directed superior, medial, and anterior.
· Its surface is smooth, covered with hyaline cartilage except over the fovea.
· An ovoid depression which is situated a little below and behind the center of the head of femur.
· Gives attachment to the ligamentum teres.
· Connecting the shaft and head of the femur.
· Projects superior and medial from the shaft to the head.
· In addition to projecting superior and medial from the shaft of the femur, the neck also projects somewhat anterior.
· The amount of forward projection is extremely variable, but on an average is from 12° to 14°.
· Large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence, situated at the junction of the neck with the upper part of the shaft.
· It is directed lateral and is located slightly lower than the head.
· It has two surfaces and four borders.
· Is a conical eminence.
· It projects from the lower and posterior part of the base of the neck.
· The inferior border is continuous with the medial lip of the linea aspera.
· The summit of the trochanter is rough, and gives insertion to the tendon of the psoas major.
· Extends inferior from the base of the lesser trochanter and gives attachment to the pectineus.
· Running obliquely down and medial from the anterior superior side of the greater trochanter.
· Ends about 5 cm. below this eminence in the linea aspera.
· It’s upper and lower has attachment to the iliofemoral ligament of the hip-joint.
· It’s lower half is less prominent, and gives attachment to the pubofemoral ligament and origin to the upper part of the vastus medialis.
· Running obliquely down and medial from the summit of the greater trochanter on the posterior surface.
· Its upper half forms the posterior border of the greater trochanter.
· Its lower half runs downward and medial to the lesser trochanter.
· A slight thickening at about the middle of the intertrochanteric crest.
· Marking the attachment of the quadratus femoris.
i. Spiral line
· Extends inferior from the intertrochanteric line from anterior to posterior.
· Transitions from the intertrochanteric line into the medial lip of the linea aspera.
ii. Gluteal tuberosity
· Rough along the posterior lateral aspect of the upper shaft.
· Runs almost vertically upward to the base of the greater trochanter.
· Transitions into the lateral lip of the linea aspera.
· Gives attachment to the deep fibres of the gluteus maximus.
i. Linea aspera
· It is slightly arched.
· A prominent longitudinal ridge or crest, on the middle third of the bone on the posterior surface.
· Contains a medial and lateral lip, and a narrow rough, intermediate line.
a. Medial lip
· It ends below at the summit of the medial condyle, in a small tubercle (adductor tubercle).
b. Lateral lip
· The lateral is the more prominent, and descends to the summit of the lateral condyle.
i. Medial supracondylar line
ii. Lateral supracondylar line
iii. Popliteal surface
· Triangular area below and between the linea aspera (in particular the medial and lateral supracondylar lines).
· Smaller and less prominent than the medial.
· Gives attachment to the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) of the knee-joint.
· A large convex eminence to which the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee-joint is attached.
· At its upper part is the adductor tubercle and behind it is a rough impression which gives origin to the medial head of the gastrocnemius.
· A small tubercle located at the summit of the medial condyle.
· Located superior and posterior to the medial epicondyle.
· Insertion for the tendon of the adductor magnus.
· Lower end of the femur that occupies the anterior and inferior surfaces of the condyles.
· Articulates with the posterior aspect of the patella.
· Convex articulating surfaces which correspond to the condyles of the tibia and menisci.